– unfavorable, bad or poor; acting or going against you
– неблагоприятный вредный; противоположный
1. Only in extremely adverse conditions should the crew evacuate the aircraft.
2. Adverse yaw is the one caused by aileron drag, in the opposite direction to the direction of the intended turn.
3. The pilots completed a simulated flight into adverse weather.
– ramdom, irregular motion of the plane or of one of its parts caused by turbulences in the airflow
– вынужденные колебания летательного аппарата или его частей
1. Pilots reported experiencing moderate buffeting after departure.
2. The aircraft was buffeted by a violent turbulence.
3. Controls should be held to prevent buffeting by the wind during taxiing.
– a set of limitations within which a technological system especially an aircraft can perform safely and effectively; a cover
– диапазон, границы (параметров); покров, оболочка
1. The boundaries of flight envelopes vary between aircraft categories and performance groups but in each case, there is a speed which must not be exceeded.
2. One of the key aspects of the aircraft fly-by-wire controls is flight-envelope protection.
3. The atmosphere is the gaseous envelope surrounding the earth.
– avoiding or seeking to avoid (trouble or difficulties); hard to catch or obtain
– уклончивый, неуловимы; уклоняющийся
1. The pilot had to take evasive actions to avoid a mid-air collision.
2. Civilian aircraft are not designed for high-G evasive maneuvers.
3. The Ryanair official was very evasive and did not give any details about the accident.
– a final transition phase of an aircraft landing, from a steady descent path to touchdown
– выравнивание (на посадке)
1. The landing flare is a maneuver that enables a pilot to reduce an airplane’s vertical speed without applying engine power.
2. The aircraft flared too late which caused a hard landing.
3. Flare height is typically 10-30 feet, which varies with airplane size.
– stopping or ceasing for a time; alternately functioning and not functioning or alternately functioning properly or improperly
– периодический, прерывистый; работающий неустойчиво, с перебоями
1. We’ve had intermittent signal loss, but it seems to be operating normally now.
2. Intermittent wiring faults may happen in aircraft power systems in an unpredictable manner when degraded wires are wet, vibrating against metal structures, or under mechanical stress.
3. The best assurance against blowing a tire is intermittent braking, with equal pressure applied to both brakes.
– to throw (cargo, supplies, etc.) overboard from a boat or airplane to lighten it or make it stable in an emergency; to dump fuel in flight
– сброс груза за борт при бедствии; аварийный сброс топлива
1. The crew jettisoned some of the cargo as the airplane lost altitude.
2. The fuel jettisoning valve must be designed to allow flight personnel to close the valve during any part of the jettisoning operation.
3. Are there any restrictions on fuel jettison during an in-flight fire?
– unintentionally, without being aware
– непреднамеренно, случайно; по невнимательности
1. The crew inadvertently taxied onto an active runway.
2. The problem of inadvertent VFR flight into IMC has been well documented.
3. Was the violation inadvertent or deliberate?
– to conceal, cover, mask; to make indistinct, difficult to use
– скрывать, делать неясным, трудноразличимым
1. Deposits of ise crystals on the windscreen obscured vision.
2. As the sky remained obscured, the decision was made to cancel the flight.
3. Before entering the runway check carefully for aircraft on final approach for 07 as trees and bushes can obscure the view from the holding area.
– not to allow light to penetrate or pass through
– непрозрачный, светонепроницаемый
1. Rime ice is opaque, white, granular ice which forms on leading edges.
2. It is possible sometimes to estimate the depth of opacity of the layer of mist or fog from the ground observations.
3. The aircraft encountered hail which caused both windshields to become basically opaque.
– having a natural tendency towards sth; having a downward direction, slope
– склонный, предрасположенный; наклонный, покатый
1. Wing leading edges and engine intakes and propellers are prone to icing.
2. Which of the following are corrision prone areas of the aircraft?
3. Several airports are prone to bird strikes.
– an increase in air pressure cause by the forward speed of the aircraft
– сжатие воздуха от набегающего потока
1. Due to ram effect from aircraft forward speed, extra air is taken into the engine.
2. Oil cooling is often achieved by using ram air.
3. Ram air turbine is used to provide electrical power and/or hydraulic pressure to the critical systems of the aircraft in case of a main generation system failure.
– a commercial airline flight between two distant points that departs late at night and arrives early in the morning; indicating a long-distant flight that leaves late at night
– ночной рейс; относящийся к ночному рейсу
1. Southwest does not operate any regularly scheduled redeye flights.
2. I’m just off the redeye special from New York.
3. Two commercial pilots fell asleep on a redeye flight from Baltimore to Denver in 2004.
– a slope or inclination
– уклон, наклон, откос
1. Distance measuring equipment (DME) is a radio aid which measures aircraft slant range to a ground beacon.
2. The wing slants upwards from the root to the tip.
3. SVR stands for slant visual range.
– a person who travels sectretly by hiding in an aircraft, or a ship, not paying the fare
– безбилетный пассажир, незаконно проникший на борт человек
1. An aviation expert believes the stowaway must have got inside the British Airways plane.
2. Stowaway slips under perimeter fence at Vienna Airport, spots the plane and climbs into a wheel compartment.
3. The crew must be alert at all times to the possibility of hijacking, bombs and stowaways.
– to (cause to) become thinner toward one end
– суживать, сужаться, сходить на клин
1. Fuel flowing from a float chamber passes through a jet, in which is positioned a tapered needled valve.
2. Swept and tapered wings will tend to stall at the tips first.
3. The approach lights may taper down to ground level.
– the runway and taxiways of an airport; a paving material formerly used for a road, airport runway, etc. (tarmacadam)
– взлетная полоса, рулежная дорожка или перрон с искусственным покрытием
1. A man who missed his flight by a few minutes breached security at Madrid’s airport and ran across the tarmac to flag down the aircraft.
2. The services were working fast to clear the snow from the tarmac.
3. The pilot aborted landing just a few meters above the tarmac after spotting another airplane on the runway.
– to force sth upon a person or thing
– навязывать, налагать (ограничения, условия)
1. Detonation imposes excessive loads on the pistons and other engine components, possibly causing engine damage and resulting in engine failure.
2. The trimmer is used to ease the loads imposed on the flying controls during flight.
3. A suitable route must be chosen taking into account the limits imposed by aircraft performance.
– to change direction or course or turn aside, to move diagonally away from the centerline or correct path; to change direction clockwise (for the wind)
– менять направление, отклоняться/сбиваться (от курса); менять направление по часовой стрелке (в отношении ветра)
1. The airplane was several feet above the runway when it suddenly veered to the right and collided with trees.
2. During the landing roll the right main landing gear collapsed and the airplane veered off the right side of the runway.
3. An example of a veering wind would be a southeast wind at the surface and a west wind at 700 millibars.
Fill in the blanks with the following words in bold:
veer buffeting envelope impose opaque flare jettison redeye intermittent
1. вынужденные колебания всего летательного аппарата или его частей
2. выравнивание (на посадке)
3. прерывистый; работающий неустойчиво, с перебоями
4. менять направление, отклоняться, сбиваться c курса
5. сбрасывать груз за борт при бедствии; аварийно сбрасывать топливо
6. диапазон, границы (параметров); покров, оболочка
7. ночной рейс
8. навязывать, налагать (ограничения, условия)
9. непрозрачный, светонепроницаемый
stowaways ram obscure prone tapered tarmac slant adverse inadvertently evasive
1. The crew taxied onto the active runway.
2. Swept and wings will tend to stall at the tips first.
3. Deposits of ice crystals on the windscreen can vision.
4. The pilot had to take action to avoid a mid-air collision.
5. The pilot aborted landing just a few meters above the after spotting another plane on the runway.
6. The crew must be alert at all times to the possibility of hijacking, bombs and .
7. SVR stands for visual range.
8. Oil cooling is often achieved by using air.
9. Wing leading edges and engine intakes and propellers are to icing.
10. The pilots completed a simulated flight into weather.